Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (MNDAA)

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SUMMARY

Established: 11 March, 1989

Headquarters: Mobile Headquarters

Active Territories: Monekoe in Kokang and Laukkai, Lashio, Theinni, Muse and Pang Hseng Townships.

Strength: More than 6,000

Chair: Phon Tar Shwin

Vice-Chair: Yan Win Zhong

Secretary General/Military Chief: U Phon Tae Yin

The Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (MNDAA), which split from the Communist Party of Burma (CPB), and has had a ceasefire agreement with the military government since its formation in 1989, is based in Kokang Special Region (1) in Shan State. In September 2009, the ceasefire was broken and fighting between the MNDAA and the Tatmadaw (military) resumed after it pressured the group to transform itself into a border guard force(BGF).

Although the MNDAA joined the peace process with the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC) during the U Thein Sein administration, it was not recognized by the government as an ethnic armed group. As a result, heavy fighting broke out between the MNDAA and the Tatmadaw in February 2015, and the group declared a unilateral ceasefire on June 10th, 2015.

In the second week of February 2019, clashes broke out between the MNDAA and the Tatmadaw in Kunlong Township. The MNDAA is one of the four members of the Northern Alliance with the Kachin Independence Army (KIO/KIA), the Ta’ang National Liberation Army (TNLA), and The Arakan Army (ULA/AA). It is also a member of the Three Brotherhood Alliance, which includes the AA and, the TNLA. After the talks held in Kengtung Township on December 20th, 2019, the Three Brotherhood Alliance announced a unilateral ceasefire until the end of December.

The MNDAA, together with the United Wa State Army (UWSA), participate in the FPNCC. It is preparing to hold non-NCA peace talks about the return of autonomy to Kokang region with the stated aim of achieving full civil rights for the people of Kokang. The armed group has had frequent clashes with the military in Monekoe and Kutkai in northern Shan State.

Following the February 2021 military coup, there were 46 days of fighting between the MNDAA and the military junta troops. In 2021, it attended an informal meeting between members of the Northern Alliance and the State Administration Council (SAC) in Mongla on December 15th.

On 16 February 2022, U Phon Kyar Shin, the leader of the MNTJP and the MNDAA-Kokang died. His funeral service was attended by delegates from allied organizations, including a representative from the military council, a representative from the National Unity Government (NUG), and the Chief of Staff of the United League of Arakan/Arakan Army (ULA/AA). It joined the Federal Political Negotiation and Consultative Committee (FPNCC) led by the United Wa State Party/United Wa State Army (UWSP/UWSA) and opened the way for political dialogue. It has formed a strong military alliance with the Palaung State Liberation Front/Ta’ang National Liberation Army (PSLF/TNLA) and the ULA/AA. Together with the Three Brotherhood Alliance, it issues the joint statements honouring the People’s Defense Forces/Local Defense Forces (PDFs/LDFs), which are waging a war against the military council during the Spring Revolution.

On the anniversary of the establishment of the Karenni Nationalities Defense Force (KNDF) and the Bamar People’s Liberation Army (BPLA), the MNTJP/MNDAA released congratulatory messages along with the ULA/AA and the PSLF/TNLA. Due to the intervention of the Chinese government, it had a meeting with the delegation of the National Solidarity and Peacemaking Negotiation Committee (NSPNC) under the military council in Mongla, under the control of the National Democratic Alliance Army (NDAA) on 1 June 2023. However, the talks ended on 2 June without reaching any agreement.

Clashes with the military council force One in 2020, 47 in 2021, 14 in 2022 and eight in 2023 (up to August). Take a look at the battles between the military council forces and the MNDAA, it is fighting as a joint    force    with    either    the    TNLA    or    the    Kachin Independence Army (KIA).

 

Ceasefires and Peace Process
Non – ceasefire group

Fighting
2015 – Unknown number of clashes with Tatmadaw
2016 – Fight with Northern Alliance (Myanmar)

Alliance
UNFC, NCCT, Northern Alliance (Myanmar)


Ceasefire & Peace Process

Non-ceasefire group

Leadership
U Phone Kyar Sin (Patron)
Secretary and commander in chief- Phen Dern (or) Phen Dexun
Deputy commander in chief – Yan Win Zhone
Chief of staff – Phen De Chuan
Spokesperson – U Htun Myant Lin

Political Demands
Self-administration in Kokang Region
Equal Ethnic rights like other ethnic groups
Full citizen rights for Kokang ethnic people

Contact:
Website: http://www.kokang123.com
Facebook: www.facebook.com/kokangarmy
Email: [email protected]


Official delegation team

None


Liaison offices

None


Meetings

 #  Date  Location  Armed Group Rep  Govt Rep  Details
1
2
3

Developments

MNDAA sent an open letter to President Thein Sein on 16 Feb 2015. In the letter, MNDAA called for political talks.


Statements

17 October 2015 – MNDAA chairperson released 17/10 statement

10 September 2015 – AA, MNDAA and TNLA released a statement on EAOs – President meeting

05 August 2015 – AA, MNDAA and TNLA released a joint statement to call for ceasefire (Eng)

05 August 2015 – AA, MNDAA and TNLA released a joint statement to call for ceasefire (Bur)

10 June 2015 – MNDAA announced unilateral ceasefire

19 April 2015 – MNDAA released a statement of battle news

01 Mar, 2015 – MNDAA, TNLA and AA released a joint statement

16 Feb, 2015 – MNDAA sent an open letter to President Thein Sein on 16 Feb 2015


Reference: Deciphering Myanmar’s Peace Process – A Reference Guide (2022 – 2023)


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