Shan State Progress Party/Shan State Army (SSPP/SSA – North)

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Shan State Progress Party/Shan State Army (SSPP/SSA)

ssa-n logo

ssa n flag


SUMMARY

Established: 24 April, 1964

Headquarters: Wan Hai, Kyethi Townships, Southern Shan State

Active Regions: Mong Hsu, Kyethi, Mong Kung, Laihka, Panglong, Loilem, Hopong, and Yatsauk in southern Shan State; Mongyai, Tangyan, Lashio, Hsipaw, Kyaukme, Naungcho, Momeik, Namtu, Namhsan, Mantong, Theinni, Kutkai, Muse, and Namhkam in northern Shan State.

Strength: More than 10,000

Chair – General Sao Pan Pha

Vice Chair – Lt. Gen Sao Khay Tai

General Secretary – Colonel Kyaw Hla

The Shan State Army (SSA) was established in 1964 under the leadership of Sao Nang Hearn Kham, the wife of Sao Shwe Thaik of Nyaungshwe. In 1971, she established the Shan State Progress Party (SSPP). A ceasefire agreement was reached between the SSPP/SSA and the military government on September 2nd, 1989, but the Tatmadaw pressured the armed group to transform into a border guard force (BGF)during the 2010 political transition, which resumed armed conflict between the two sides.

The group was a member of the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC) during the peace process under the U Thein Sein administration. Although a state and union-level ceasefire agreement was reached between the group and the Tatmadaw in January 2015. The SSPP/SSA was not among the signatories to the NCA in October 2015. It had some clashes with the Tatmadaw and the Restoration Council of Shan State (RCSS/SSA) in its regions of control.

The SSPP/SSA is a member of the Federal Political Negotiation Consultative Committee (FPNCC) led by the United Wa State Army (UWSA). There have been some talks with Tatmadaw representatives, but no signs of peace have been seen. There have been clashes between SSPP/SSA and RCSS/SSA, even though the group is a member of the Committee for Shan State Unity (CSSU), which is comprised of Shan political parties and civil society organisations (CSOs).

In 2020, at its plenary session of the annual Central Committee, a four-point roadmap was set to work for national unity in Shan State, and for the emergence of a genuine federal union that guarantees peace, equality and self-determination.

At the plenary meeting of Annual Central Committee for 2020, the SSPP/ SSA decided four points for the future process, including working towards the emergence of a genuine federal union that guarantees equality and self- determination with the aim of ensuring ethnic unity in Shan State and continued collaboration with the government, Tatmadaw, the EROs, political parties, and social organizations for domestic peace.

According to the statement on the 51st Anniversary of the establishment of the SSPP released on 16 August 2022, in order to solve political crisis, economic crisis and social problems, there is a special need to end the military dictatorship, stop the unjust repression and killings, redraft the federal democratic charter, release all political prisoners and create an all-inclusive community for solving the political crisis.

As the SSPP/SSA, which is part of the Federal Political Negotiation and Consultative Committee (FPNCC) led by the United Wa State Party/ United Wa State Army (UWSP/UWSA), was unable to refuse the military’s invitation for peace talks. It held informal talks with the military council following the military coup. At a meeting with the military council on 26 September 2022, the SSPP/SSA submitted nine points including the implementation of the Panglong Agreement, Principle and Pledge, implement the agreements made in the 1961 All States Conference, form a Bamar state in order to achieve national equality and build a federal democratic union. 92

After the meeting between the military council and a group of the UWSA, the National Democratic Alliance Army (NDAA)-Mongla and the SSPP on 20 and 21 July 2023, the group said that they were not yet ready to attend the peace conference that the military group is trying to hold.

Clashes with the military council force There were six clashes in 2022 and three in 2023 (till August).
Clashes with the EROs There were two clashes between the SSPP/SSA and the Restoration Conucil of Shan State/ Shan State Army (RCSS/SSA) in 2020, 24 in 2021, four in 2022 and three in 2023 (till August). There were two clashes between the Palaung State Liberation Front/ Ta’ang National Liberation Army (PSLF/TNLA) and the RCSS/SSA in 2020 and 11 in 2021.

 

Former Ceasefire Agreement
September 2, 1988

FIghting after Ceasefire
2012 – 130
2013 – 71 confrontations
2014 – 100+
2015 – 34 (Media Reports)
2016 – 10 (Media Reports)
2019 – 5 Clashes


Ceasefires and Peace Process
7 th EAO to sign ceasefire agreement
Step 1 – State – Level Ceasefire Agreement (January 28, 2012)
Step 2 – Union – level ceasefire agreement (January 28, 2012)


Official Representative Team
rotating

Liaison Offices
1. Lashio
2. Taunggyi
3. Kho Lam
4. Muse (not yet opened)
5. Tachileik (Not Confirmed)


Alliances
UNFC, FUA, NCCT,
DPN member

Contact
Email: [email protected]


Meetings

 #  Date  Location  Armed Group Rep  Govt Rep  Details
1 29/10/2012 Naypyidaw Sao Naw Lake Aung Min SSPP/SSA asked the government to withdraw the Myanmar military from 4 locations around Wanhai. The government said they will consider their request.
Other govt delegates included: MP Thein Zaw
2 28/01/2012 Taunggyi Col Khun Hseng Aung Thaung tate and Union Level
Other SSA-N delegates: Sao Kherh Tai
Other govt delegates: Col Aung Thu, Minister for Security and Border Affairs, and 4 others from the Shan state Government
3 22/06/2012 Mandalay Unknown Unknown A emergency meeting following heavy fighting between the SSA and Myanmar military that started on June 17, 2012. The government agreed to withdraw from two of SSPP/SSA military bases. The bases include: Kunnamile and Loi Pha Pheung in Monghsu Township, southern Shan state.
4 10/10/2012 Northeastern military headquarters, Lashio Khun Hseng Aung Min Both sides agreed to cooperate on a new village for families of the SSPP/SSA and internally displaced persons (IDPs). The arrangements were made in exchange for the release of Myanmar military soldiers who were being held by SSPP/SSA.
The government donated 1,000 sacks of rice and 2 hand-push tractors to for the development of the village.
Other govt delegates included::Thein Zaw, Shan State Chief Minister Sao Aung Myat, Brig-Gen Aung Soe, Brig-Gen Min Naung, Deputy Ministers Maj-Gen Zaw Win, Ohn Than and Aye Myint Maung, Deputy Attorney-General Tun Tun Oo. Mediator (govt):: Hla Maung Shwe
5 31/10/2012 Kho Lam, central-east military command HQ in Shan state Khun Hseng Central-east military command commander Gen. Min Naung An agreement was made on the following: SSPP/SSA will open a liaison office in Kho Lam, SSPP camp does not need to move from Ta-Sampu boat port area, allowed to explore lead and ruby in Mong Shu area.
Other SSA-N delegates:Sao Naw Lek, Sai Kyaw Win, Maj. Khur Mao Other govt delegates:G1 Myo Htut Oo, Maj. Ye Yint Win, Maj. Kaung Kyaw (intelligence)
6 21/02/2013 Lashio Major Naw Lae and the group’s Northeastern Regional Military Commander General Aung Soe “ Discussed recent skirmishes – On Tuesday and Wednesday clashes escalated after government troops “suddenly” attacked the SSA-N Battalion 192 base at Loila and even launched artillery attacks on the hilltop, Sai La alleged. “
7 03/04/2013 Lashio, Shan State U Khun Hseng U Khin Maung Soe (minister of electric power no.2), U Win Myint (minister of trade and commerce) and myanmar military high ranking officials At the meeting, SSPP/SSA claimed Myanmar army’s columns must draw back from SSA’s controlled area. Even though SSPP/SSA claimed myanmar army’s columns to draw back, representatives from myanmar government didn’t give any concrete clear answer about it. However, government’s representatives promised they would inform about the SSPP’s claims to president.
8 11/05/2013 Tangyang town in northern Shan state Sao Kherh Tai (vice-chairman), Sao Kam Maing (liaison office), Sao Aung Hla (liaison office), Sao Kham Maung (CC), Sao Shwe Hla (Sec), Sao Naw Lek U Thein Zaw (vice-chairman of UPWC), Ministers U Win Myint, U Khin Maung Soe, U Kyaw Kyaw Win, Sao Aung Myat (Shan state chief minister), Gen Than Htut Oo (triangle command), Brig. Gen. Min Naung (central east command), Brig. Gen. Aung Soe (northeast command), Col Aung Thu (Shan state border affairs), Col. Soe Win (from defence ministry), U San Shwe Aung (border affairs ministry) They discussed many issues including the armed conflicts between SSPP/SSA and govt forces and refugees and IDPs resulting from the clashes. Both sides agreed: to follow the agreement in Taung-gyi city in Jan 2012; to solve the problems by using peace peaceful method if they have some problems; both sides should not do any work if it’s overloaded on people; to meet with military officials for discussion about demarcation the controlled area. Even though both parties agreed to meet again in Taung-gyi city but they could not announce the exact schedule for the next round of peace talks. SSPP/SSA and government forces had over 100 times of battles after they signed a ceasefire agreement 1 year ago. They agreed 4 points.
9 13/07/2013 Lashio city SSPP/SSA UPWC A delegation led by Vice-Chairman of Union Peace-making Work committee U Thein Zaw held talks with a peace group led by U Sao Khun Hsai, General Secretary of SSPP/SSA (Wamheng) of Shan State (North) at Shweli Hall of North-East Command Headquarters yesterday.The vice-chairman and party held discussions with the peace group on cementing already established peace and stability, trust , disciplinary procedures and friendship and called on SSPP/SSA to make necessary preparations for advancing to a political dialogue.
10 06/09/2013 Lashio SSPP/SSA Shwe Mann, Thein Zaw and MPs Informal meeting
11 20/09/2013 Taunggyi RCSS, SSPP, PNLO U Aung Min (UPWC) Informal meeting
This is an informal meeting between UPWC and RCSS, SSPP, and PNLO in Taunggyi city. U Aung Min and delegations from RCSS, SSPP and PNLO attend the Shan-Kayah-Mon state Trust Building Conference holds on 21-23 Sept 2013. RCSS seems to discuss about the recent clahes betwenn RCSS and Myanmar army in southern Shan state.
12 08/07/2014 Naypyitaw General Secretary Col Khun Sai, and 11 representatives Thein Zaw, UPWC Vice Chairman Informal meeting
U Thein Zaw invited SSPP representatives to discuss over an recent tension,
13 25/08/2014 Naypyitaw NDAA-ESS, U San Pay (Vice chairman) , UWSA – Shao Min Lian (Vice Chairman), SSPP/SSA Gen Khae Taine vice chairman President Thein Sein Informal meeting
14 25/08/2014 Naypyitaw SSPP/SSA Gen Khur Tai (vice chairman) Commander In Chief, Min Aung Hlaing Informal meeting
15 26/08/2014 Naypyitaw NDAA-ESS, U San Pay (Vice chairman) , UWSA – Shao Min Lian (Vice Chairman), SSPP/SSA Gen Khur Tai vice chairman Parliament Speaker Shwe Mann, Khin Aung Myint Informal meeting

Developments

SSPP agreed to negotiations after the government released their leader General Hso Ten and other leading Shan politicians including Khun Htun Oo.

Agreed points:

Ceasefire

Liaison offices will open in Taunggyi, Lashio and Kholan. More offices will be allowed to be opened in other locations. Panglong terms – non-disintegration of national solidarity and perpetuation of sovereignty at all times based on the Panglong spirit.

Military

Agreed that SSPP/SSA soldiers be allowed to be based in Wanhai and other temporary locations.
Transgression and arms carrying will be allowed under negotiation between both sides.
Will continue talks for ensuring regional peace, stability and development, enabling the troops to earn their living and ensuring lasting peace in the region.

Drugs

Cooperation on eradicating drugs.

Resettlement

Arrangements for improvement of the livelihood and social life of Shan State Progressive Party (SSPP) members and their families in line with the law and in cooperation with the government.

  • Resettlement of over 3500 people including SSPP/SSA family members to Mong Kaung sub-Township and Mongshu Township. They also discussed responsibilities for the livelihoods of family members, transportation, better living standards. Also on the agenda were regional development tasks and recuperation of vacant and virgin lands for cultivation of long-lasting trees and seasonal crops.

Ongoing issues:

  • working out details for a new village for 350 families in the Honam-Tawng Hio area.
  • the govt refuses to discuss ongoing conflicts along the Shwe gas pipeline in northern Shan State. Neither did the two sides talk about Ta Hsarm Pu dam over the Pang river – the Myanmar military demanded the SSPP/SSA to withdraw from the area
  • more communication needed with Myanmar army regional commanders to avoid future clashes with SSPP/SSA

Clashes + Ceasefire Breaches

Since ceasefire: >40 clashes Langhko, Kyauk Mae, Hsipaw, Mong Mit (Mong Ngoe), Monghsu, Kayse, Tangyan, in northern Shan State Before ceasefire: 30,000 displaced (esp. from Kehsi/Kyethi and Monghsu Townships)#

Partnerships

Shan Conference named “ Trust building for peace” held in Taw-win-ninsi hall, Shwegontai, Yangon on Nov. 26, 2012. Minister Aung Min, chief negotiator, gave the opening speech. Minister Aung Min and Minister Soe Thein attended the meeting. About 150 Shan representatives (SNLD, SNDP, TNDP, RCSS/SSA-S, SSPP/SSA-N, NDAA) and others attended the meeting.


International Partnerships


Statements

21 Octorber 2015 – SSPP released a statement on bomb blasted in Monghsu township

21 Octorber 2015 – SSPP/SSA set a letter to UPWC chairman (Eng)

21 Octorber 2015 – SSPP/SSA set a letter to UPWC chairman (Bur)

18 October 2015 – SSPP released a statement on government’s forces attack on SSPP

12 October 2015 – SSPP released a statement on current political situation after emergency meeting

08 October 2015 – SSPP released a statement to stop offensive in Shan state

16 August 2015 – SSPP released a statement on 44th anniversary of SSPP

30 June 2015 – SSPP released a statement after bi-annual meeting (Eng)

30 June 2015 – SSPP released a statement after bi-annual meeting (Bur)

14 Feb, 2015 – SSPP released a statement on Kokang armed conflicts (Eng)

14 Feb, 2015 – SSPP released a statement on armed conflicts in Laukkai

Dec 31, 2014 – SSPP statement on annual conference (Eng)

Dec 31, 2014 – SSPP statement on annual conference (Bur)

Dec 13, 2014 – SSPP/SSA sent an open letter to US ambassador (13 Dec)

Oct 10, 2014 – SSPP released a statement on Myanmar army attacked SSPP (eng)

Oct 10, 2014 – SSPP released a statement on Myanmar army attacked SSPP

Oct 04, 2014 – SNLD, SNDP, RCSS, and SSPP released a joint statement (4 Oct)

Oct 03, 2014 – Shan leaders sent an open letter to president

Dec 31, 2013 – SSPP/SSA released a statement on Central Committee meeting

Sep 21, 2013 – An interview with SSPP General Hso ten 7 days news

Jul 08, 2013 – SSPP/SSA released a bi-annual meeting statement

Jan 10, 2013 – NDAA, UWSA and SSPP/SSA issued a joint statement for the govt to stop its offensive against the KIO/KIA and start political dialogue

Jan 22, 2012 – SSPP/SSA statement

Jul 19, 2011 – SSPP/SSA statement general meeting statement

Mar 29, 2011 – United Nationalities Federal Council Union-Burma UNFC Statement


Reference: Deciphering Myanmar’s Peace Process – A Reference Guide (2022 – 2023)


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