Pa-Oh National Liberation Organization (PNLO)

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SUMMARY

Established: 11 December, 1949 (First time) and 7 – 9 December 2009 (Second time)

Headquarters: Kadugyi area in Mawkmai Township in Southern Shan State.

Active Territories: Hsi Hseng, Hopong, Namhsan, Langhko and Mawkmai Townships in Shan State.

Strength: More than 400

Chair – General Khun Thurein

Vice-chair (1) – Khun Tun Tin

General Secretary – Col. Khun Aung Man

The Pa-O National Liberation Organisation (PNLO) signed ceasefire agreements at the state and union levels between August 2012 and March 2013, It was among the ethnic armed groups that signed the Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) on October 15th, 2015, with the U Thein Sein government. The PNLO participated in the peace process through the Peace Process Steering Team (PPST) under the NCA.

On December 11th, 2020, the PNLO was founded on the 71st Revolution Day against the feudal system. The PNLO announced that it would participate in political dialogue, including the 21st Century Panglong – Union Peace Conference, in hopes to achieve national reconciliation, national unity and the establishment of a federal democratic union. The group said it would seek to convene a Pa-O National Convention based on the principle of inclusiveness.

The PNLO called on the public to use their rights of “one vote per person” in the 2020 general election. The PNLO also welcomed and supported the emergence of the National Unity Government (NUG) following the 2021 military coup based on its stated aim of building a democratic federal union. There were some informal talks between the National Solidarity and Peacemaking Negotiation Committee (NSPNC) and the PNLO after the military coup. Khun Myint Tun, the Vice-Chair of the PNLO serves as the chair of the Pa-O National Federal Council (PNFC) and cooperates with the National Unity Consultative Council (NUCC).

After the third conference held from 29 May to 1 June 2022, Vice-Chair Khun Myint Tun who serves as a representative in the PPST on behalf of the PNLO was not included in its new central committee. Khun Myint Tun himself forms the PNFC and cooperates with the forces of the Spring Revolution by joining the NUCC.

The new PNLO central committee, led by Chair Khun Thurein, plays a leading role in the Peace Process Steering Team (PPST) and is holding informal talks with the military council. PNLO patron Colonel Khun Okkar led the meeting between the military council and five ethnic armed organizations which signed the ceasefire agreement in June 2023. The meeting mainly focused on four points, including the amendment to the 2008 Constitution and holding the peace conference. 88

On 7 May 2023, a convoy carrying ASEAN diplomats, officials from the Indonesia and Singapore embassies, the ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on Disaster Management (AHA Centre), PNLO delegates and officials from the Shan State administration council, were attacked on the way to Hsi Hseng from Taunggyi to deliver supplies to displaced persons in PNLO-controlled territory.

Clashes with the military council force There have been no clashes between the PNLO and the military council before and after the military coup.
Clashes with the EROs There were two clashes between the PNLO and the Restoration Council of Shan State/Shan State Army (RCSS/SSA) up to August 2023.

 


Ceasefires and Peace Process
13 th EAO to sign a ceasefire agreement
Step 1 – State-level ceasefire agreement (August 25, 2012)
Step 2 – Union – level ceasefire agreement (March 23, 2013)
Step 3 – NCA (15 October 2015)


Official Representative Team
State Level – 7 members
1. Khun Myint Htun
(Team Leader)
2. Colonel Khun Therein
(Deputy Team Leader)
3. Brigadier General Khun Tee Saung
(Member)
4. Major Khun Kyaw Htin (Member)
5. Khun Oo (Member)
6. Khun Tun Tin (Member)
7. Major Khun Swe Hto (Member)

Union Level – 12 members
1. Colonel Khun Oakkar (Leader)
2. Khun Myint Htun (Second Leader)
3. Colonel Khun Thurein (Member)
4. Colonel Aung Kyaw (Member)
5. Khun Oo (Member)
6. Khun Tin Shwe Oo (Member)
PNLO peace building team
7. Major Khun Swe Hto (Member)
8. Kung Htee (Member)
9. Khun Htun Tin (Member)
10. Khun Thomas (Member)
11. Nan Nwe Nwe (Member)
12. Nan Myint (Member)


Liaison Offices
1. Taunggyi (26/01,2013)
2. Tha Htone (21/03/2013)
3. Maukme (08/12/2013)
4. Hsi Seng (opening soon)

Alliances
PPST,
PPWT/CT,
UPDJC,
JMC
member

Contact
Email: [email protected]


Meetings

 #  Date  Location  Armed Group Rep  Govt Rep  Details
1 23/12/2011 Bangkok, Thailand Khun Okkar Aung Min Informal peace meeting for both PNLO and UNFC leading to preliminary talks. PNLO Chairman Khun Okkar said that his group will observe talks involving other ethnic organization that are members of the UNFC and met with the government separately in order to study the issues being presented.
2 5/2/2012 Chiang Mai, Thailand Khun Myint Tun, Khun Thurein, Khun Tun Tin U Aung Min Preliminary meeting
Both sides plan to hold a formal state level meeting in the following month.
3 22/04/2012 By Phone Khun Okkar U Aung Min Preliminary meeting
Both sides plan to hold a formal state-level meeting in the following month.
4 27/06/2012 Bangkok, Thailand Khun Okkar, Khun Myint Tun U Aung Min Preliminary meeting
Agreement to sign a 7-point draft agreement.
Other PNLO delegates: Khun Myint Tun
Other govt delegates: Minister of Immigration and Population U Khin Yee
5 28/07/2012 Yangon PNLO peace delegation led by Khun Myint Tun and Col. Khun Thurein U Aung Min Preliminary meeting
Discussed ideas for the upcoming official meeting for State level ceasefire agreement. Meeting followed an exploratory trip by the PNLO peace delegation inside the country (Taunggyi, Thaton township).
6 25/08/2012 Taunggyi, Shan State PNLO peace delegation led by Khun Myint Tun and Col. Khun Thurein U Aung Min State Level ceasefire agreement signed
Other government delegates: union Ministers, representatives of the Lower house and Upper house, Shan state Chief Minister Sao Aung Myat and state government members, Commander of Eastern Command Maj. Gen. Soe Htut and senior military officers
7 23/03/2013 Myanmar Peace Center, Yangon Col Khun Okkar, U Khun Myint Tun, Col Khun Thurein and CEC members U Aung Min, Union Ministers U Khin Maung Soe, U Win Tun and U Ohn Myint, Shan State Chief Minister U Sao Aung Myat Union Level
The two sides reached an agreement in ten major sectors including relief, social affairs, anti-drug, and regional development, most important of all continued ceasefire. The two parties also agreed to continue political dialogue.
8 02/09/2013 Taunggyi RCSS/SSA, PNO, SNLO Shwe Mann, Thein Zaw, Gen. Aung Than Htut Informal meeting
Shan state government asked for 50% of Shan state revenue to spend in Shan state
9 20/09/2013 Taunggyi RCSS, SSPP, PNLO U Aung Min (UPWC) Informal meeting
U Aung Min met delegations from RCSS, SSPP and PNLO at the sidelines of the Shan-Kayah-Mon state Trust Building Conference between Sept 21-23, 2013.
10 5-6/09/2013 Naypyitaw PNLO delegation led by Khun Myint Tun and Khun Tin Shwe Oo U Aung Min, U Khin Yee, U Win Tun, U Soe Thein and U Than Htay Informal meeting
Both parties discussed the continued implementation of union level peace agreements, nationwide ceasefire, participating in national census.

Developments

  • State level ceasefire agreement signed on Aug 25, 2012 and Union level ceasefire agreement signed on March 23, 2013
  • Agreed to open liaison offices – Taunggyi, Thahton, Maukmai, and Hsi Hseng and Mauk Mai
  • Nationwide ceasefire will only be done through the NCCT
  • PNLO and Myanmar government will continue to hold informal meetings in the pursuit of peace

Military

  • to maintain the location of PNLO/ PNLA troops
  • both sides agreed to be positioned at designated areas
  • both sides agreed not to take arms to other regions except in designated areas
  • discussions will take place regarding any violations of the signed in the code of conduct
  • to jointly manage food, clothing and shelter for troops

Economic

  • cooperate on agricultural projects

Political

  • To cooperate in establishing Pa-Oh media *requested setting up an independent Pa-Oh news and media organization
  • cooperate on public security *22/07/2012: As per the invitation from U Aung Min, seven members from PNLO’s peace delegation visited Myanmar for ten days from July 22 -31 to hold several consultation meetings with individuals, the state Pa-Oh political parties, religious leaders, and Pa-Oh activists. They visited PNO patron U Aung Kham Hte, as well as the PNO chairman and other PNO senior leaders; held consultation meetings with Pa-Oh CBOs and CSOs at the PNO headquarters, and met with the abbot of Taung Kyaung Kyi monastery; traveled to Thaton Township in Mon state to hold several consultation meetings with the Pa-Oh community, senior Pa-Oh monks, and National League for Democracy Thaton (NLD-Thaton).

Drugs

  • To cooperate on solving the drug problem Informal partnership with KNPP and ABSDF to combat drug addiction and rehabilitation.

Partnerships

Nippon Foundation donated 1,200 rice bags to PNLO (January 2013)


Statements

Dec 11, 2020 – PNLO released a statement regarding 71st anniversary of the Pa O people’s revolution against feudalism

Nov 7, 2020 – PNLO released a statement regarding 2020 General Election

Sep 27, 2020 – PNLO released a statement regarding 10th CEC meeting in second congress

May 19, 2020 – PNLO’s statement

Apr 6, 2020 – PNLO released a statement regarding Covid 19

Mar 8, 2020 – PNLO released a statement regarding 71st Anniversary of Pa-O National Day

Feb 2, 2020 – PNLO released a statement regarding 8th CEC meeting in second congress

Dec 10, 2019 – PNLO released a statement regarding 10th Anniversary of PNLO

Sep 11, 2019 – PNLO’s statement

Aug 13, 2019 – PNLO released a statement regarding 7th CEC meeting

May 21, 2019 – PNLO released a statement regarding NCA-S EAO meeting

May 9, 2019 – PNLO released a statement regarding 6th CEC meeting

Jan 31, 2019 – PNLO released a statement regarding 70th Karen Revolution Day

Dec 12, 2018 – PNLO released a 3/2018 statement

Dec 3, 2018 – PNLO released a 1/2018 statement

Nov 1, 2018 – PNLO released a statement regarding 30th Anniversary of ABSDF

Oct 7, 2018 – PNLO released a statement regarding 3 years anniversary of signing NCA event

Jan 15, 2018 – PNLO released a statement regarding 2nd Congress

Dec 11, 2017 – PNLO released a statement regarding 68th Pa Oh Revolution Day

May 20, 2017 – PNLO released a statement regarding 13th CEC meeting

Jun 18, 2016 – PNLO released a statement regarding 10th CEC meeting
Dec 11, 2014 – PNLO released a statement to commemorate the 65th Anti-Feudalism anniversary

Jan 12, 2014 – Message to 51st anniversary revolution day of T’ang (Palaung)

May 21, 2013 – Statement of PNLO 1st Congress

Mar 26, 2013 – National Day Message

Mar 23, 2013 – PNLO Union Level Agreement (Burmese)

Mar 23, 2013 – PNLO Union Level Agreement (English)

Jan 01, 2012 – PNLO 2012 New Year Statement

Jan 31, 2011 – Statement of PNLO Annual Meeting

Sep 21, 2010 – PNLO Statement on International Day of Peace

Feb 27, 2010 – PNLO Statement on Pa-Oh-National Day

Feb 27, 2010 – PNLO Honorable Message for Pa Oh National Day


Reference: Deciphering Myanmar’s Peace Process – A Reference Guide (2022 – 2023)


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